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Fatality Facts 2021State by state

Overview

The number and types of motor vehicle crash deaths differ widely among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. A state's population has an obvious effect on the number of motor vehicle deaths. Fatality rates per capita and per vehicle miles traveled provide a way of examining motor vehicle deaths relative to the population and amount of driving. However, many factors can affect these rates, including types of vehicles driven, travel speeds, rates of licensure, state traffic laws, emergency care capabilities, weather and topography. The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s . Posted May 2023.

Fatal crash totals

There were 39,508 fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States in 2021 in which 42,939 deaths occurred. This resulted in 12.9 deaths per 100,000 people and 1.37 deaths per 100 million miles traveled. The fatality rate per 100,000 people ranged from 5.7 in Rhode Island to 26.2 in Mississippi. The death rate per 100 million miles traveled ranged from 0.71 in Massachusetts to 2.08 in South Carolina. Federal Highway Administration. (2022). Highway statistics, 2021. U.S. Department of Transportation.

Population, fatal motor vehicle crashes, motor vehicle crash deaths and motor vehicle crash death rates per state, 2021
State Population Vehicle miles traveled (millions) Fatal crashes Deaths Deaths per 100,000 population Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled
Alabama 5,049,846 79,569 885 983 19.5 1.24
Alaska 734,182 5,752 59 67 9.1 1.16
Arizona 7,264,877 73,760 1,063 1,180 16.2 1.60
Arkansas 3,028,122 38,427 631 693 22.9 1.80
California 39,142,991 310,823 3,983 4,285 10.9 1.38
Colorado 5,811,297 53,840 638 691 11.9 1.28
Connecticut 3,623,355 28,989 283 298 8.2 1.03
Delaware 1,004,807 10,152 132 136 13.5 1.34
District of Columbia 668,791 3,248 40 41 6.1 1.26
Florida 21,828,069 217,566 3,451 3,738 17.1 1.72
Georgia 10,788,029 120,685 1,670 1,797 16.7 1.49
Hawaii 1,447,154 9,972 94 94 6.5 0.94
Idaho 1,904,314 19,308 244 271 14.2 1.40
Illinois 12,686,469 97,530 1,210 1,334 10.5 1.37
Indiana 6,813,532 78,640 863 932 13.7 1.19
Iowa 3,197,689 33,039 329 356 11.1 1.08
Kansas 2,937,922 31,693 381 424 14.4 1.34
Kentucky 4,506,589 48,111 734 806 17.9 1.68
Louisiana 4,627,098 54,728 887 972 21.0 1.78
Maine 1,377,238 14,560 135 153 11.1 1.05
Maryland 6,174,610 56,601 522 561 9.1 0.99
Massachusetts 6,989,690 59,115 397 417 6.0 0.71
Michigan 10,037,504 96,744 1,072 1,136 11.3 1.17
Minnesota 5,711,471 57,171 451 488 8.5 0.85
Mississippi 2,949,586 40,853 697 772 26.2 1.89
Missouri 6,169,823 79,791 931 1,016 16.5 1.27
Montana 1,106,227 13,482 222 239 21.6 1.77
Nebraska 1,963,554 21,210 192 221 11.3 1.04
Nevada 3,146,402 27,077 360 385 12.2 1.42
New Hampshire 1,387,505 13,130 106 118 8.5 0.90
New Jersey 9,267,961 73,673 669 699 7.5 0.95
New Mexico 2,116,677 26,823 427 481 22.7 1.79
New York 19,857,492 106,870 1,099 1,157 5.8 1.08
North Carolina 10,565,885 117,734 1,535 1,663 15.7 1.41
North Dakota 777,934 9,256 85 101 13.0 1.09
Ohio 11,764,342 112,923 1,242 1,354 11.5 1.20
Oklahoma 3,991,225 44,760 681 762 19.1 1.70
Oregon 4,256,301 36,842 552 599 14.1 1.63
Pennsylvania 13,012,059 102,686 1,153 1,230 9.5 1.20
Rhode Island 1,096,985 7,526 61 63 5.7 0.84
South Carolina 5,193,266 57,492 1,112 1,198 23.1 2.08
South Dakota 896,164 9,994 131 148 16.5 1.48
Tennessee 6,968,351 82,596 1,229 1,327 19.0 1.61
Texas 29,558,864 285,028 4,068 4,498 15.2 1.58
Utah 3,339,113 33,638 293 328 9.8 0.98
Vermont 646,972 6,625 69 74 11.4 1.12
Virginia 8,657,365 80,102 906 973 11.2 1.21
Washington 7,740,745 57,797 603 670 8.7 1.16
West Virginia 1,785,526 16,079 257 280 15.7 1.74
Wisconsin 5,880,101 64,983 572 620 10.5 0.95
Wyoming 579,483 11,097 102 110 19.0 0.99
U.S. total 332,031,554 3,140,090 39,508 42,939 12.9 1.37

Deaths by road user

In 2021, the types of motor vehicle crash deaths varied across states. For example, Wyoming had the highest percentage of deaths involving SUV and pickup occupants (47 percent) and a relatively low percentage of deaths involving car occupants (18 percent). In contrast, Rhode Island had the highest percentage of deaths involving car occupants (49 percent) and a relatively low percentage of deaths involving SUV and pickup occupants (14 percent). Hawaii reported relatively low proportions of fatalities for both cars (14 percent) and SUVs and pickups (18 percent), but a relatively high percentage of pedestrian deaths (27 percent) and motorcyclist deaths (35 percent). The District of Columbia had the highest percentage of crash deaths involving bicyclists (7 percent) and the highest percentage involving pedestrians (44 percent).
Motor vehicle crash deaths by road user type and state, 2021
State Car occupants Pickup and SUV occupants Large truck occupants Motorcyclists Pedestrians Bicyclists Total*
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Alabama 398 40 307 31 19 2 80 8 128 13 7 1 983 100
Alaska 16 24 22 33 1 1 6 9 16 24 2 3 67 100
Arizona 338 29 267 23 19 2 158 13 248 21 45 4 1,180 100
Arkansas 229 33 221 32 22 3 97 14 79 11 10 1 693 100
California 1,502 35 822 19 39 1 586 14 1,108 26 124 3 4,285 100
Colorado 198 29 236 34 9 1 137 20 92 13 15 2 691 100
Connecticut 125 42 45 15 1 0 66 22 53 18 3 1 298 100
Delaware 58 43 21 15 1 1 24 18 29 21 2 1 136 100
District of Columbia 8 20 2 5 1 2 9 22 18 44 3 7 41 100
Florida 1,168 31 758 20 31 1 670 18 817 22 195 5 3,738 100
Georgia 659 37 518 29 29 2 194 11 306 17 15 1 1,797 100
Hawaii 13 14 17 18 0 0 33 35 25 27 4 4 94 100
Idaho 96 35 93 34 8 3 32 12 21 8 3 1 271 100
Illinois 514 39 330 25 18 1 176 13 209 16 34 3 1,334 100
Indiana 371 40 240 26 29 3 137 15 111 12 21 2 932 100
Iowa 116 33 101 28 16 4 68 19 30 8 11 3 356 100
Kansas 134 32 166 39 11 3 47 11 43 10 4 1 424 100
Kentucky 304 38 249 31 25 3 108 13 75 9 10 1 806 100
Louisiana 304 31 325 33 16 2 91 9 184 19 34 3 972 100
Maine 51 33 55 36 2 1 21 14 19 12 2 1 153 100
Maryland 224 40 107 19 5 1 80 14 129 23 6 1 561 100
Massachusetts 147 35 95 23 5 1 72 17 74 18 5 1 417 100
Michigan 353 31 337 30 14 1 176 15 174 15 29 3 1,136 100
Minnesota 170 35 152 31 14 3 69 14 50 10 9 2 488 100
Mississippi 313 41 268 35 11 1 38 5 94 12 16 2 772 100
Missouri 351 35 312 31 23 2 166 16 117 12 7 1 1,016 100
Montana 65 27 109 46 8 3 26 11 18 8 3 1 239 100
Nebraska 80 36 88 40 12 5 21 10 15 7 1 0 221 100
Nevada 95 25 94 24 9 2 88 23 80 21 6 2 385 100
New Hampshire 38 32 40 34 1 1 26 22 8 7 2 2 118 100
New Jersey 233 33 99 14 17 2 98 14 212 30 23 3 699 100
New Mexico 123 26 160 33 19 4 54 11 102 21 6 1 481 100
New York 331 29 212 18 12 1 224 19 293 25 32 3 1,157 100
North Carolina 663 40 440 26 18 1 233 14 248 15 23 1 1,663 100
North Dakota 30 30 37 37 3 3 8 8 10 10 1 1 101 100
Ohio 515 38 321 24 26 2 226 17 168 12 30 2 1,354 100
Oklahoma 250 33 281 37 13 2 80 10 106 14 12 2 762 100
Oregon 200 33 176 29 8 1 86 14 87 15 18 3 599 100
Pennsylvania 428 35 304 25 22 2 230 19 176 14 21 2 1,230 100
Rhode Island 31 49 9 14 0 0 13 21 7 11 2 3 63 100
South Carolina 439 37 317 26 16 1 184 15 190 16 23 2 1,198 100
South Dakota 57 39 46 31 2 1 22 15 14 9 0 0 148 100
Tennessee 509 38 385 29 30 2 169 13 177 13 6 0 1,327 100
Texas 1,404 31 1,417 32 119 3 523 12 817 18 91 2 4,498 100
Utah 113 34 106 32 11 3 39 12 43 13 6 2 328 100
Vermont 24 32 22 30 1 1 16 22 8 11 0 0 74 100
Virginia 387 40 289 30 18 2 114 12 123 13 16 2 973 100
Washington 248 37 148 22 6 1 93 14 142 21 14 2 670 100
West Virginia 81 29 99 35 6 2 29 10 36 13 0 0 280 100
Wisconsin 220 35 174 28 5 1 123 20 48 8 9 1 620 100
Wyoming 20 18 52 47 5 5 18 16 11 10 0 0 110 100
U.S. total 14,744 34 11,491 27 756 2 6,084 14 7,388 17 961 2 42,939 100

Crash types

Nationwide, 52 percent of motor vehicle crash deaths in 2021 occurred in single-vehicle crashes. Montana and Hawaii tied for the highest percentage of deaths in single-vehicle crashes (70 percent), while Nebraska had the highest percentage of deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes (57 percent).
Deaths by crash type and state, 2021
State Single-vehicle Multiple-vehicle All crashes
Number % Number % Number %
Alabama 486 49 497 51 983 100
Alaska 34 51 33 49 67 100
Arizona 606 51 574 49 1,180 100
Arkansas 360 52 333 48 693 100
California 2,362 55 1,923 45 4,285 100
Colorado 350 51 341 49 691 100
Connecticut 157 53 141 47 298 100
Delaware 68 50 68 50 136 100
District of Columbia 24 59 17 41 41 100
Florida 1,861 50 1,877 50 3,738 100
Georgia 931 52 866 48 1,797 100
Hawaii 66 70 28 30 94 100
Idaho 144 53 127 47 271 100
Illinois 661 50 673 50 1,334 100
Indiana 451 48 481 52 932 100
Iowa 206 58 150 42 356 100
Kansas 202 48 222 52 424 100
Kentucky 397 49 409 51 806 100
Louisiana 527 54 445 46 972 100
Maine 92 60 61 40 153 100
Maryland 294 52 267 48 561 100
Massachusetts 234 56 183 44 417 100
Michigan 589 52 547 48 1,136 100
Minnesota 264 54 224 46 488 100
Mississippi 416 54 356 46 772 100
Missouri 525 52 491 48 1,016 100
Montana 167 70 72 30 239 100
Nebraska 95 43 126 57 221 100
Nevada 201 52 184 48 385 100
New Hampshire 78 66 40 34 118 100
New Jersey 415 59 284 41 699 100
New Mexico 272 57 209 43 481 100
New York 682 59 475 41 1,157 100
North Carolina 884 53 779 47 1,663 100
North Dakota 49 49 52 51 101 100
Ohio 668 49 686 51 1,354 100
Oklahoma 379 50 383 50 762 100
Oregon 326 54 273 46 599 100
Pennsylvania 639 52 591 48 1,230 100
Rhode Island 36 57 27 43 63 100
South Carolina 619 52 579 48 1,198 100
South Dakota 87 59 61 41 148 100
Tennessee 643 48 684 52 1,327 100
Texas 2,260 50 2,238 50 4,498 100
Utah 162 49 166 51 328 100
Vermont 44 59 30 41 74 100
Virginia 550 57 423 43 973 100
Washington 356 53 314 47 670 100
West Virginia 157 56 123 44 280 100
Wisconsin 321 52 299 48 620 100
Wyoming 68 62 42 38 110 100
U.S. total 22,465 52 20,474 48 42,939 100

Alcohol involvement

Some states report blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for only a small percentage of passenger vehicle drivers. If BAC is missing for a driver, it is estimated by the U.S. Department of Transportation's multiple imputation model. Subramanian, R. (2002). Transitioning to multiple imputation — A new method to impute missing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) values in FARS (Report no. DOT HS-809-403). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.However, BAC information is most precise in states that report a high percentage of crashes where BAC information is reported. In the following table, estimated percentages of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BACs at or above 0.08 percent are shown only for states in which BAC reporting for fatally injured drivers was 70 percent or higher. Estimated percentages are based on known BAC when available and imputed BAC for the remaining drivers.

Nationally in 2021, BAC was reported for 59 percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers. Reporting rates varied substantially, from a high of 95 percent (Hawaii) to a low of 9 percent (Mississippi). Thirty-one states had BAC reporting rates of at least 70 percent. Among these states, Montana had the highest estimated percentage of fatally injured drivers with BACs of 0.08 percent or higher (47 percent), while West Virginia had the lowest (21 percent).
Estimated number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle drivers with BAC ≥ 0.08 percent by state, 2021
State Total drivers killed Drivers killed with known BAC results Estimated drivers killed with BACs ≥ 0.08
Number Number % Number %
Alabama 549 310 56
Alaska 25 21 84 7 27
Arizona 426 162 38
Arkansas 347 268 77 89 26
California 1,760 698 40
Colorado 325 293 90 104 32
Connecticut 148 131 89 54 36
Delaware 57 35 61
District of Columbia 9 8 89 3 36
Florida 1,429 768 54
Georgia 922 411 45
Hawaii 20 19 95 9 45
Idaho 143 77 54
Illinois 646 392 61
Indiana 484 199 41
Iowa 169 92 54
Kansas 240 103 43
Kentucky 429 321 75 104 24
Louisiana 487 409 84 159 33
Maine 82 63 77 27 32
Maryland 260 199 77 87 33
Massachusetts 202 188 93 74 36
Michigan 544 214 39
Minnesota 257 183 71 66 26
Mississippi 456 40 9
Missouri 515 404 78 145 28
Montana 136 96 71 64 47
Nebraska 131 75 57
Nevada 143 117 82 45 32
New Hampshire 62 50 81 25 40
New Jersey 260 228 88 72 28
New Mexico 197 151 77 71 36
New York 430 183 43
North Carolina 899 616 69
North Dakota 48 38 79 12 25
Ohio 662 561 85 224 34
Oklahoma 408 358 88 95 23
Oregon 306 215 70 101 33
Pennsylvania 568 349 61
Rhode Island 32 25 78 12 38
South Carolina 607 446 73 233 38
South Dakota 79 67 85 30 37
Tennessee 709 361 51
Texas 2,118 968 46
Utah 153 128 84 36 24
Vermont 39 34 87 13 34
Virginia 531 438 82 158 30
Washington 290 246 85 96 33
West Virginia 146 130 89 30 21
Wisconsin 317 102 32
Wyoming 59 42 71 21 35
U.S. total 20,261 12,032 59 6,115 30

Restraint use

Based on daytime observational surveys, the nationwide rate of seat belt use among front seat passenger vehicle occupants in 2021 was 90 percent. California had the highest observed seat belt use for front seat occupants, at 97 percent, while New Hampshire had the lowest, at 76 percent. National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2022). Seat belt use in 2021 — Use rates in the states and territories (Report No. DOT HS-813-307). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Rates of restraint use among fatally injured motor vehicle occupants will be lower than the overall observed restraint use rate because unrestrained occupants are more likely than restrained ones to be fatally injured in a crash. Restrained fatally injured occupants include occupants in child safety seats and occupants restrained by seat belts. In 2021, just 45 percent of fatally injured occupants were restrained. New York had the highest restraint use percentage among fatally injured occupants at 57 percent. New Hampshire had the lowest restraint use among fatally injured occupants at just 19 percent.
Rates of observed daytime front-seat belt use and number and percent of fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants by restraint use and state, 2021
State and percent of observed seat belt use Restrained fatally injured occupants Unrestrained fatally injured occupants Unknown restraint status of fatally injured occupants Total fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number
Alabama 91 316 44 358 49 52 7 726
Alaska 92 17 44 13 33 9 23 39
Arizona 89 215 35 294 48 101 17 610
Arkansas 84 179 39 234 52 41 9 454
California 97 1,246 53 881 38 220 9 2,347
Colorado 87 180 41 225 52 29 7 434
Connecticut 92 70 41 74 44 26 15 170
Delaware 92 36 46 40 51 3 4 79
District of Columbia 96 5 50 5 50 0 0 10
Florida 90 1,018 52 896 46 33 2 1,947
Georgia 95 520 44 561 47 113 9 1,194
Hawaii 94 11 37 19 63 0 0 30
Idaho 83 68 36 108 57 14 7 190
Illinois 94 314 37 337 39 204 24 855
Indiana 93 260 42 247 40 112 18 619
Iowa 93 106 48 89 40 26 12 221
Kansas 86 127 42 138 45 40 13 305
Kentucky 90 266 48 291 52 2 <1 559
Louisiana 86 227 36 339 53 69 11 635
Maine 92 52 49 55 51 0 0 107
Maryland 91 151 45 148 44 36 11 335
Massachusetts 78 91 37 111 45 44 18 246
Michigan 93 324 46 240 34 136 19 700
Minnesota 92 163 50 102 31 62 19 327
Mississippi 80 260 44 238 41 88 15 586
Missouri 88 209 31 408 61 48 7 665
Montana 92 54 31 111 63 10 6 175
Nebraska 81 64 38 79 46 27 16 170
Nevada 93 97 50 72 37 25 13 194
New Hampshire 76 15 19 48 62 15 19 78
New Jersey 94 146 43 160 47 31 9 337
New Mexico 90 103 36 170 60 12 4 285
New York 93 314 57 184 33 55 10 553
North Carolina 90 561 50 518 46 44 4 1,123
North Dakota 82 29 43 31 46 8 12 68
Ohio 84 309 36 443 51 110 13 862
Oklahoma 84 234 44 261 49 41 8 536
Oregon 95 178 47 121 32 81 21 380
Pennsylvania 90 268 36 372 50 104 14 744
Rhode Island 89 19 46 18 44 4 10 41
South Carolina 90 343 45 382 50 42 5 767
South Dakota 87 31 30 65 62 9 9 105
Tennessee 90 414 46 395 44 95 11 904
Texas 90 1,344 47 1,195 42 328 11 2,867
Utah 88 115 52 81 36 26 12 222
Vermont 89 18 38 28 60 1 2 47
Virginia 82 332 48 339 49 16 2 687
Washington 94 200 50 148 37 50 13 398
West Virginia 88 77 42 73 40 34 18 184
Wisconsin 88 155 39 169 43 72 18 396
Wyoming 80 26 36 44 61 2 3 72
U.S. total 90 11,877 45 11,958 45 2,750 10 26,585

Rural versus urban

Nationwide, 40 percent of motor vehicle crash deaths in 2021 occurred in rural areas. The states with the highest percentage of crash deaths on rural roads were Vermont (92 percent), South Dakota (82 percent), and Wyoming (78 percent). The states with the lowest percentage were Massachusetts (6 percent), Maryland (7 percent), and New Jersey (9 percent). The District of Columbia had zero crash deaths in rural areas because its entirety is coded as an urban area.
Number and percent of motor vehicle crash deaths by land use and state, 2021
State Urban Rural Unknown Total
Number % Number % Number % Number
Alabama 463 47 520 53 0 0 983
Alaska 31 46 36 54 0 0 67
Arizona 780 66 357 30 43 4 1,180
Arkansas 285 41 408 59 0 0 693
California 2,992 70 1,291 30 2 <1 4,285
Colorado 394 57 295 43 2 <1 691
Connecticut 253 85 45 15 0 0 298
Delaware 93 68 43 32 0 0 136
District of Columbia 41 100 0 0 0 0 41
Florida 2,958 79 778 21 2 <1 3,738
Georgia 1,199 67 598 33 0 0 1,797
Hawaii 73 78 19 20 2 2 94
Idaho 84 31 186 69 1 <1 271
Illinois 953 71 371 28 10 1 1,334
Indiana 505 54 425 46 2 <1 932
Iowa 107 30 247 69 2 1 356
Kansas 164 39 257 61 3 1 424
Kentucky 309 38 496 62 1 <1 806
Louisiana 564 58 406 42 2 <1 972
Maine 38 25 111 73 4 3 153
Maryland 509 91 41 7 11 2 561
Massachusetts 389 93 27 6 1 <1 417
Michigan 712 63 412 36 12 1 1,136
Minnesota 225 46 262 54 1 <1 488
Mississippi 234 30 459 59 79 10 772
Missouri 511 50 503 50 2 <1 1,016
Montana 56 23 181 76 2 1 239
Nebraska 57 26 164 74 0 0 221
Nevada 255 66 130 34 0 0 385
New Hampshire 57 48 60 51 1 1 118
New Jersey 618 88 66 9 15 2 699
New Mexico 220 46 258 54 3 1 481
New York 901 78 255 22 1 <1 1,157
North Carolina 878 53 784 47 1 <1 1,663
North Dakota 24 24 77 76 0 0 101
Ohio 821 61 521 38 12 1 1,354
Oklahoma 325 43 436 57 1 <1 762
Oregon 255 43 344 57 0 0 599
Pennsylvania 742 60 484 39 4 <1 1,230
Rhode Island 50 79 12 19 1 2 63
South Carolina 540 45 658 55 0 0 1,198
South Dakota 27 18 121 82 0 0 148
Tennessee 803 61 524 39 0 0 1,327
Texas 2,749 61 1,744 39 5 <1 4,498
Utah 188 57 140 43 0 0 328
Vermont 6 8 68 92 0 0 74
Virginia 428 44 542 56 3 <1 973
Washington 399 60 267 40 4 1 670
West Virginia 105 38 174 62 1 <1 280
Wisconsin 204 33 414 67 2 <1 620
Wyoming 24 22 86 78 0 0 110
U.S. total 25,598 60 17,103 40 238 1 42,939
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