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Fatality Facts 2021Passenger vehicle occupants

Overview

The largest number of motor vehicle crash deaths occurs among occupants of passenger vehicles, including cars, minivans, pickups, SUVs, and cargo/large passenger vans. The likelihood of crash death varies markedly among these vehicle types according to size. Small/light vehicles have less structure to absorb crash energy, so crash forces on occupants will be higher. People in lighter vehicles are at a disadvantage in collisions with heavier vehicles. Puckett, S. M. & Kindelberger, J. C. (2016). Relationships between fatality risk, mass, and footprint in model year 2003-2010 passenger cars and LTVs – Preliminary report (Docket No. NHTSA-2016-0068). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.Pickups and SUVs are more likely than cars to be in fatal single-vehicle crashes, especially rollovers. However, pickups and SUVs generally are heavier than cars, so occupant deaths in SUVs and pickups are less likely to occur in multiple-vehicle crashes.

Guide to car size groups
Curb weight Shadow (overall length x width in square feet)
70-80 81-90 91-100 101-110 > 110
Note: Includes minivans.
2,001-2,500 lbs Mini Small Small Small Midsize
2,501-3,000 lbs Small Small Midsize Midsize Midsize
3,001-3,500 lbs Small Midsize Midsize Large Large
3,501-4,000 lbs Small Midsize Large Large Very large
> 4,000 lbs Midsize Midsize Large Very large Very large
Guide to SUV size groups
  Curb weight
Small 3,001-3,750 lbs
Midsize 3,751-4,750 lbs
Large 4,751-5,750 lbs
Very large > 5,750 lbs or shadow > 115 sq ft
Guide to pickup size groups
  Curb weight
Small ≤ 4,000 lbs
Large > 4,000 lbs and carrying capacity = 1/2 ton
Very large > 4,000 lbs and carrying capacity > 1/2 ton
The following facts are based on analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s and IHS Markit. Posted May 2023.

Crash types

Frontal impacts accounted for 59 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2021. Side impacts accounted for another 22 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in all crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2021
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 8,742 59 2,891 60 3,892 59 15,742 59
Side 3,662 25 843 17 1,258 19 5,824 22
Rear 853 6 181 4 369 6 1,423 5
Other (mostly rollover) 1,487 10 940 19 1,117 17 3,596 14
Total* 14,744 100 4,855 100 6,636 100 26,585 100
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in single-vehicle crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2021
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 3,465 61 1,432 54 1,731 56 6,702 58
Side 867 15 333 12 292 9 1,511 13
Rear 88 2 31 1 33 1 153 1
Other (mostly rollover) 1,296 23 878 33 1,036 34 3,257 28
Total* 5,716 100 2,674 100 3,092 100 11,623 100
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2021
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 5,277 58 1,459 67 2,161 61 9,040 60
Side 2,795 31 510 23 966 27 4,313 29
Rear 765 8 150 7 336 9 1,270 8
Other (mostly rollover) 191 2 62 3 81 2 339 2
Total* 9,028 100 2,181 100 3,544 100 14,962 100
Thirty-nine percent of car occupant deaths in 2021 occurred in single-vehicle crashes (and 61 percent occurred in multiple-vehicle crashes). In contrast, single-vehicle crashes accounted for 55 percent of pickup occupant deaths and 47 percent of SUV occupant deaths.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by vehicle and crash type, 2021
Vehicle type Deaths in single-vehicle crashes Deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes Deaths in all crashes*
Number % Number % Number %
Cars 5,716 39 9,028 61 14,744 100
Pickups 2,674 55 2,181 45 4,855 100
SUVs 3,092 47 3,544 53 6,636 100
Other 141 40 209 60 350 100
All passenger vehicles 11,623 44 14,962 56 26,585 100

Age and sex differences

Twenty-three percent of passenger vehicle occupants killed in 2021 were younger than 25.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by age, 2021
Age All occupants
Number %
<25 6,178 23
25-29 2,794 11
30-34 2,521 9
35-39 2,071 8
40-44 1,757 7
45-49 1,445 5
50-54 1,646 6
55-59 1,563 6
60-64 1,505 6
65-69 1,257 5
70+ 3,766 14
Total* 26,585 100

The majority of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2021 were male. This was true of both drivers (72%) and all occupants (66%), and these values were mostly consistent across age.

Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by age, type and sex, 2021
Age Drivers All occupants
Male Female Total* Male Female Total*
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
<16 34 76 11 24 45 100 536 53 472 47 1,011 100
16-19 918 72 362 28 1,282 100 1,367 66 710 34 2,080 100
20-24 1,651 72 641 28 2,294 100 2,093 68 990 32 3,087 100
25-29 1,631 74 587 26 2,219 100 1,945 70 847 30 2,794 100
30-34 1,497 72 577 28 2,082 100 1,733 69 779 31 2,521 100
35-39 1,205 70 514 30 1,719 100 1,377 66 694 34 2,071 100
40-44 1,059 73 400 27 1,460 100 1,204 69 551 31 1,757 100
45-49 879 73 332 27 1,212 100 987 68 456 32 1,445 100
50-54 1,006 71 406 29 1,412 100 1,122 68 524 32 1,646 100
55-59 968 73 351 27 1,320 100 1,082 69 480 31 1,563 100
60-64 930 73 349 27 1,280 100 1,014 67 490 33 1,505 100
65-69 774 74 276 26 1,051 100 837 67 419 33 1,257 100
≥70 1,929 68 921 32 2,853 100 2,184 58 1,577 42 3,766 100
Total* 14,498 72 5,735 28 20,261 100 17,525 66 9,017 34 26,585 100
Just 7 percent of passenger vehicle occupant deaths were in the second or third row; 29 percent of these were younger than 13.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by seating position and age, 2021
Seating position <13 years 13-19 years ≥20 years Total*
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Driver 1 0 1,326 7 18,902 93 20,261 100
Front-row passenger 106 3 572 14 3,379 83 4,075 100
Second-row passenger 505 28 384 21 890 49 1,801 100
Third-row passenger 29 40 14 19 29 40 72 100
Total* 715 3 2,376 9 23,412 88 26,585 100

Driver death rates

Computing driver death rates per million registered passenger vehicles allows for comparisons of fatal crash risk across vehicle groups. The computed rates reflect the influence of vehicle designs plus their patterns of use and the demographics of their drivers. Driver death rates for each year are based on vehicles that were 1-3 years old at the time of the crash so as to minimize the effects of vehicle aging. Death rates calculated from vehicles with fewer than 120,000 registrations are considered unreliable and are not included. Since 1978, the overall rates of driver and occupant deaths per million registered vehicles have declined across all passenger vehicle types. Declines in death rates have been largest for SUV occupants.
Passenger vehicle occupant death rates by vehicle type, 1978-2021
Occupant deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 1978-2021
Year Drivers All occupants
Cars Pickups SUVs All passenger vehicles Cars Pickups SUVs All passenger vehicles
1978 155 237 273 169 235 346 438 256
1979 165 246 271 180 244 350 425 265
1980 167 221 287 177 248 316 494 263
1981 177 216 237 182 259 296 389 265
1982 155 188 229 159 231 263 392 236
1983 148 188 225 153 220 263 337 225
1984 147 190 143 151 218 259 218 222
1985 139 182 141 144 207 257 227 213
1986 128 172 134 133 196 239 224 202
1987 129 178 136 136 196 248 232 205
1988 133 186 121 140 205 251 198 211
1989 130 185 116 138 199 255 185 208
1990 122 179 126 131 187 245 201 197
1991 108 169 109 117 169 229 175 178
1992 101 151 88 108 160 200 151 165
1993 97 137 93 102 152 187 141 156
1994 100 134 87 104 159 178 148 161
1995 103 134 102 107 160 180 157 162
1996 107 127 98 109 167 178 150 167
1997 96 118 93 99 152 161 146 153
1998 90 119 86 94 141 158 141 144
1999 91 120 93 96 138 162 139 143
2000 83 117 81 89 127 155 135 134
2001 83 130 74 89 124 170 116 131
2002 84 123 76 88 126 162 122 131
2003 81 115 72 85 122 151 115 126
2004 76 107 66 79 114 145 103 117
2005 79 110 56 78 117 145 88 114
2006 77 101 49 73 112 137 74 106
2007 70 95 44 67 103 128 69 99
2008 65 87 35 61 92 114 52 85
2009 56 63 25 49 82 83 36 69
2010 49 64 20 43 71 80 29 61
2011 43 49 17 37 62 66 24 52
2012 42 44 16 35 61 56 23 49
2013 41 39 19 34 58 52 26 48
2014 37 38 18 32 53 47 24 44
2015 42 40 20 35 62 52 29 51
2016 44 39 21 36 63 48 32 51
2017 46 37 22 36 66 46 33 51
2018 48 34 23 36 70 42 32 51
2019 48 32 24 35 68 39 35 49
2020 53 35 25 37 72 46 34 50
2021 64 40 28 43 91 52 41 60

Historically, rates of driver deaths per million registered vehicles have been higher for smaller and lighter vehicles. The differences between large and small vehicles are less extreme today than they used to be. Monfort, S. S., & Nolan, J. M. (2019). Trends in aggressivity and driver risk for cars, SUVs, and pickups: Vehicle incompatibility from 1989 to 2016. Traffic injury prevention20(sup1), S92-S96.

Driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2021
Driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2021
Registered vehicles Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 605,905 59 97
Small 5,337,716 406 76
Midsize 6,735,478 373 55
Large 1,550,954 126 81
Very large 1,344,045 34 25
All cars 15,574,098 999 64
Pickups Small 1,655,155 68 41
Large 5,033,550 188 37
Very large 1,668,179 65 39
All pickups 8,356,884 333 40
SUVs Small 10,170,204 356 35
Midsize 10,073,764 241 24
Large 1,489,792 24 16
Very large 426,294 7 16
All SUVs 22,160,054 630 28
All passenger vehicles All 47,105,279 2,008 43
Overall in 2021, there were 16 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in single-vehicle crashes and 26 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in multiple-vehicle crashes. Cars had the highest number of deaths per registered vehicle both in single-vehicle crashes (24 per million) and in multiple-vehicle crashes (41 per million). SUVs had the lowest number of deaths per registered vehicle in single-vehicle crashes (11 per million) and multiple-vehicle crashes (18 per million).
Driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old by crash type, 2021
Multiple-vehicle Single-vehicle Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 45 74 14 23 4 7 59 97
Small 295 55 111 21 37 7 406 76
Midsize 210 31 163 24 49 7 373 55
Large 55 35 71 46 21 14 126 81
Very large 25 19 9 7 2 1 34 25
All cars 631 41 368 24 113 7 999 64
Pickups Small 39 24 29 18 11 7 68 41
Large 90 18 98 19 32 6 188 37
Very large 32 19 33 20 14 8 65 39
All pickups 170 20 163 20 58 7 333 40
SUVs Small 253 25 103 10 21 2 356 35
Midsize 123 12 118 12 50 5 241 24
Large 13 9 11 7 4 3 24 16
Very large 3 7 4 9 1 2 7 16
All SUVs 393 18 237 11 76 3 630 28
All passenger vehicles All 1,233 26 775 16 249 5 2,008 43
Driver deaths per million 1-3 year old registered pickups and SUVs by crash type and 2WD/4WD, 2021
Multiple-vehicle Single-vehicle Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
2WD 4WD 2WD 4WD 2WD 4WD 2WD 4WD
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Pickups Small 19 34 20 18 8 14 21 19 4 7 7 6 27 48 41 38
Large 28 24 62 16 21 18 77 20 8 7 24 6 49 42 139 36
Very large 1 31 20 0 0 33 21 0 0 14 9 0 0 64 41
All pickups 48 26 113 17 29 16 131 20 12 7 45 7 77 42 244 37
SUVs Small 126 29 125 22 48 11 55 9 5 1 16 3 174 40 180 31
Midsize 60 19 63 9 49 15 69 10 14 4 36 5 109 34 132 19
Large 4 12 9 8 3 9 8 7 1 3 3 3 7 21 17 15
Very large 1 2 6 1 3 10 0 1 3 2 11 35
All SUVs 191 24 199 14 101 13 135 10 20 3 56 4 292 37 334 24
In multiple-vehicle crashes, frontal impacts accounted for 18 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in 2021. By comparison, multiple-vehicle side impacts accounted for 6 deaths per million and multiple-vehicle rear impacts accounted for 2 deaths per million.
Driver deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2021
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars 413 27 151 10 54 3 3 <1 631 41
Pickups 130 16 32 4 6 <1 1 <1 170 20
SUVs 250 11 105 5 31 1 2 <1 393 18
All passenger vehicles 827 18 293 6 91 2 6 <1 1,233 26
Driver deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old by passenger vehicle size, 2021
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 27 45 16 26 2 3 0 <1 45 74
Small 190 36 77 14 25 5 1 <1 295 55
Midsize 137 20 46 7 19 3 1 <1 210 31
Large 37 24 11 7 5 3 1 <1 55 35
Very large 21 16 1 <1 3 2 0 <1 25 19
All cars 413 27 151 10 54 3 3 <1 631 41
Pickups Small 23 14 12 7 3 2 1 <1 39 24
Large 75 15 13 3 2 <1 0 <1 90 18
Very large 25 15 5 3 1 <1 0 <1 32 19
All pickups 130 16 32 4 6 <1 1 <1 170 20
SUVs Small 163 16 68 7 17 2 2 <1 253 25
Midsize 75 7 33 3 13 1 0 <1 123 12
Large 9 6 3 2 1 1 0 0 13 9
Very large 2 5 1 2 0 <1 0 <1 3 7
All SUVs 250 11 105 5 31 1 2 <1 393 18
All passenger vehicles All 827 18 293 6 91 2 6 <1 1,233 26
In single-vehicle crashes, frontal impacts accounted for 12 driver deaths per million registered passenger vehicles in 2021. By comparison, single-vehicle side impacts accounted for just 1 death per million and single-vehicle rear impacts for less than 1 death per million.
Driver deaths in single-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 2021
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars 254 16 36 2 4 <1 27 2 368 24
Pickups 114 14 12 1 2 <1 18 2 163 20
SUVs 182 8 18 <1 0 0 23 1 237 11
All passenger vehicles 554 12 68 1 6 <1 69 1 775 16
Driver deaths in single-vehicle crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old by passenger vehicle size, 2021
Frontal impacts Side impacts Rear impacts Other Total
Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate Deaths Rate
Cars Mini 13 21 0 <1 0 <1 0 <1 14 23
Small 83 16 9 2 1 <1 9 2 111 21
Midsize 102 15 22 3 2 <1 11 2 163 24
Large 48 31 4 3 1 <1 7 5 71 46
Very large 8 6 1 <1 0 <1 0 <1 9 7
All cars 254 16 36 2 4 <1 27 2 368 24
Pickups Small 23 14 0 <1 0 <1 5 3 29 18
Large 74 15 7 1 1 <1 5 <1 98 19
Very large 16 10 5 3 1 <1 7 4 33 20
All pickups 114 14 12 1 2 <1 18 2 163 20
SUVs Small 83 8 7 <1 0 <1 9 <1 103 10
Midsize 87 9 8 <1 0 <1 13 1 118 12
Large 8 5 2 1 0 0 1 1 11 7
Very large 3 7 1 2 0 <1 0 <1 4 9
All SUVs 182 8 18 <1 0 <1 23 1 237 11
All passenger vehicles All 554 12 68 1 6 <1 69 1 775 16

Rollover

A crash is classified as a rollover if the vehicle tips onto its side or roof at any time during the crash. The rollover may result from an impact with another vehicle or with a fixed object. Many rollovers occur after a vehicle leaves the roadway and may lead to occupants being ejected from the vehicle, increasing the likelihood of a fatality. A total of 7,640 passenger vehicle occupants died in rollover crashes in 2021. Although most rollovers (76 percent) were associated with a pre-rollover impact, a substantial proportion (24 percent) rolled over without having impacted anything beforehand.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in rollover crashes by impact point and vehicle type, 2021
Point of initial impact Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants All occupants
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Frontal 1,532 50 853 44 1,107 44 3,542 46
Side 487 16 279 14 369 15 1,157 15
Rear 102 3 91 5 111 4 309 4
None 546 18 568 29 671 27 1,818 24
Other 393 13 164 8 249 10 814 11
Total* 3,060 100 1,955 100 2,507 100 7,640 100
Crashes in which a vehicle rolled over accounted for 29 percent of all passenger vehicle occupant deaths in 2021. The proportion of occupant deaths involving a rollover was much higher in single-vehicle crashes (49 percent) than it was for multiple-vehicle crashes (13 percent).
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths by crash type, 1978-2021
Year Deaths in single-vehicle crashes Deaths in multiple-vehicle crashes Deaths in all crashes*
Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
1978 7,858 48 8,460 52 1,477 8 17,093 92 9,350 27 25,573 73
1979 8,010 48 8,542 52 1,666 9 16,779 91 9,691 28 25,335 72
1980 8,673 49 9,001 51 1,588 9 15,679 91 10,282 29 24,714 71
1981 8,211 50 8,188 50 1,588 9 15,692 91 9,812 29 23,899 71
1982 6,974 49 7,205 51 1,305 8 14,158 92 8,282 28 21,374 72
1983 6,951 50 7,079 50 1,256 8 13,868 92 8,207 28 20,947 72
1984 7,116 50 7,092 50 1,358 9 14,528 91 8,474 28 21,620 72
1985 6,900 50 6,779 50 1,361 8 14,805 92 8,262 28 21,586 72
1986 7,954 52 7,428 48 1,501 9 15,341 91 9,455 29 22,769 71
1987 8,162 53 7,363 47 1,629 9 15,991 91 9,791 30 23,354 70
1988 8,562 53 7,494 47 1,582 9 16,467 91 10,144 30 23,961 70
1989 8,060 52 7,558 48 1,620 9 16,361 91 9,680 29 23,919 71
1990 8,068 52 7,382 48 1,556 9 15,705 91 9,624 29 23,087 71
1991 7,749 52 7,131 48 1,523 10 14,407 90 9,272 30 21,538 70
1992 7,135 52 6,693 48 1,492 10 14,137 90 8,627 29 20,830 71
1993 7,002 51 6,821 49 1,524 9 14,647 91 8,526 28 21,468 72
1994 7,268 52 6,637 48 1,669 10 15,246 90 8,937 29 21,883 71
1995 7,802 53 6,940 47 1,708 10 15,464 90 9,510 30 22,404 70
1996 7,903 53 6,891 47 1,691 10 15,869 90 9,594 30 22,760 70
1997 7,712 53 6,743 47 1,774 10 16,114 90 9,486 29 22,857 71
1998 7,848 54 6,594 46 1,872 11 15,467 89 9,720 31 22,061 69
1999 8,255 56 6,502 44 1,839 11 15,412 89 10,094 32 21,914 68
2000 8,112 54 6,841 46 1,800 10 15,356 90 9,912 31 22,197 69
2001 8,375 55 6,786 45 1,747 10 15,030 90 10,122 32 21,816 68
2002 8,724 55 7,114 45 1,952 12 14,934 88 10,676 33 22,048 67
2003 8,462 55 6,936 45 1,940 12 14,828 88 10,402 32 21,764 68
2004 8,525 56 6,764 44 2,022 12 14,439 88 10,547 33 21,203 67
2005 8,730 57 6,713 43 2,095 13 13,902 87 10,825 34 20,630 66
2006 8,790 57 6,666 43 1,919 13 13,229 87 10,712 35 19,916 65
2007 8,429 56 6,528 44 1,844 13 12,330 87 10,274 35 18,881 65
2008 7,541 56 6,002 44 1,529 13 10,459 87 9,073 36 16,474 64
2009 6,868 55 5,538 45 1,451 13 9,630 87 8,322 35 15,185 65
2010 6,375 55 5,245 45 1,365 13 9,366 87 7,740 35 14,611 65
2011 6,148 55 5,076 45 1,293 13 8,896 87 7,441 35 13,972 65
2012 6,273 55 5,201 45 1,312 13 9,120 87 7,585 35 14,321 65
2013 5,825 53 5,168 47 1,257 12 9,111 88 7,082 33 14,279 67
2014 5,570 52 5,059 48 1,304 12 9,198 88 6,874 33 14,257 67
2015 5,802 53 5,138 47 1,458 12 10,343 88 7,260 32 15,481 68
2016 5,919 52 5,511 48 1,616 13 10,911 87 7,535 31 16,422 69
2017 5,617 51 5,455 49 1,651 13 11,143 87 7,268 30 16,598 70
2018 5,125 49 5,247 51 1,511 12 11,163 88 6,636 29 16,410 71
2019 4,877 49 5,159 51 1,500 12 11,021 88 6,377 28 16,180 72
2020 5,611 50 5,674 50 1,627 13 11,223 87 7,238 30 16,897 70
2021 5,643 49 5,980 51 1,997 13 12,965 87 7,640 29 18,945 71
In 2021, rollover crashes accounted for 21 percent of occupant deaths in cars, 40 percent of occupant deaths in pickups, and 38 percent of occupant deaths in SUVs.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in rollover vs. no rollover crashes, 1978-2021
Year Car occupants Pickup occupants SUV occupants
Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover Rollover No rollover
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
1978 6,422 23 21,476 77 1,989 39 3,114 61 520 61 332 39
1979 6,416 23 21,102 77 2,222 41 3,201 59 630 67 315 33
1980 6,862 25 20,420 75 2,263 41 3,226 59 735 65 389 35
1981 6,541 25 19,865 75 2,177 42 3,059 58 663 65 358 35
1982 5,477 24 17,667 76 1,935 40 2,844 60 571 66 291 34
1983 5,381 24 17,420 76 1,939 42 2,721 58 609 66 311 34
1984 5,525 24 17,959 76 2,048 42 2,836 58 587 66 299 34
1985 5,220 23 17,864 77 2,044 42 2,848 58 671 66 353 34
1986 6,000 24 18,898 76 2,371 44 2,963 56 737 65 394 35
1987 6,015 24 19,145 76 2,598 45 3,197 55 824 65 445 35
1988 6,246 24 19,630 76 2,762 45 3,327 55 815 62 505 38
1989 5,801 23 19,533 77 2,680 45 3,336 55 847 62 526 38
1990 5,714 23 18,749 77 2,713 45 3,319 55 910 61 570 39
1991 5,470 24 17,324 76 2,593 44 3,265 56 934 61 587 39
1992 4,968 23 16,921 77 2,479 45 2,997 55 879 63 511 37
1993 4,877 22 17,289 78 2,415 43 3,196 57 971 63 581 37
1994 5,149 23 17,559 77 2,393 43 3,211 57 1,102 61 707 39
1995 5,381 23 17,838 77 2,581 43 3,392 57 1,257 63 749 37
1996 5,357 23 18,170 77 2,539 43 3,389 57 1,429 65 781 35
1997 5,174 22 18,069 78 2,479 42 3,443 58 1,516 63 900 37
1998 5,177 23 17,298 77 2,537 43 3,367 57 1,703 63 1,008 37
1999 5,212 23 16,997 77 2,699 44 3,396 56 1,901 63 1,118 37
2000 5,030 23 17,061 77 2,529 42 3,467 58 2,067 62 1,270 38
2001 5,056 23 16,632 77 2,636 43 3,485 57 2,159 61 1,362 39
2002 5,279 24 16,835 76 2,715 45 3,343 55 2,474 62 1,548 38
2003 4,943 23 16,182 77 2,509 43 3,324 57 2,658 60 1,805 40
2004 4,801 23 15,822 77 2,519 44 3,197 56 2,949 62 1,823 38
2005 4,860 24 15,096 76 2,773 46 3,267 54 2,909 60 1,938 40
2006 4,754 25 14,333 75 2,781 47 3,096 53 2,919 59 2,054 41
2007 4,414 25 13,391 75 2,660 46 3,098 54 2,929 59 2,046 41
2008 3,994 25 11,731 75 2,368 47 2,653 53 2,510 58 1,840 42
2009 3,515 25 10,609 75 2,246 48 2,473 52 2,388 56 1,866 44
2010 3,202 24 10,231 76 2,057 46 2,386 54 2,340 57 1,790 43
2011 3,063 24 9,675 76 1,973 46 2,272 54 2,259 55 1,836 45
2012 3,208 24 9,904 76 1,987 46 2,352 54 2,287 55 1,884 45
2013 2,991 23 9,740 77 1,916 45 2,299 55 2,057 50 2,041 50
2014 2,818 22 9,725 78 1,871 44 2,352 56 2,070 50 2,033 50
2015 3,004 23 10,316 77 1,916 43 2,574 57 2,211 48 2,366 52
2016 3,124 22 10,933 78 1,973 43 2,652 57 2,305 47 2,603 53
2017 3,007 22 10,895 78 1,837 41 2,597 59 2,322 45 2,864 55
2018 2,677 20 10,583 80 1,741 40 2,639 60 2,113 42 2,946 58
2019 2,527 20 10,008 80 1,630 38 2,654 62 2,100 39 3,265 61
2020 3,017 22 10,637 78 1,804 41 2,603 59 2,326 40 3,455 60
2021 3,060 21 11,684 79 1,955 40 2,900 60 2,507 38 4,129 62
A total of 5,643 passenger vehicle occupants died in single-vehicle rollover crashes in 2021, which accounts for nearly three-quarters of all rollover deaths (7,640 in all). The number of passenger vehicle occupant deaths in single-vehicle rollovers was 28 percent lower than it was in 1978.
Passenger vehicle occupant deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes, 1978-2021
Year Car drivers Pickup drivers SUV drivers All passenger vehicle drivers All passenger vehicle occupants
1978 3,710 1,140 271 5,323 7,858
1979 3,610 1,263 329 5,396 8,010
1980 3,995 1,309 406 5,895 8,673
1981 3,826 1,291 364 5,687 8,211
1982 3,222 1,162 312 4,828 6,974
1983 3,169 1,120 319 4,732 6,951
1984 3,252 1,226 331 4,964 7,116
1985 3,076 1,202 360 4,773 6,900
1986 3,477 1,401 375 5,400 7,954
1987 3,436 1,535 403 5,528 8,162
1988 3,679 1,656 447 5,925 8,562
1989 3,314 1,629 463 5,551 8,060
1990 3,301 1,563 486 5,477 8,068
1991 3,105 1,595 470 5,282 7,749
1992 2,806 1,492 442 4,848 7,135
1993 2,670 1,462 494 4,729 7,002
1994 2,838 1,403 522 4,879 7,268
1995 3,024 1,556 602 5,284 7,802
1996 2,953 1,514 720 5,294 7,903
1997 2,836 1,469 754 5,178 7,712
1998 2,878 1,545 808 5,328 7,848
1999 2,882 1,667 999 5,644 8,255
2000 2,813 1,526 1,035 5,466 8,112
2001 2,852 1,651 1,063 5,654 8,375
2002 2,998 1,668 1,224 5,967 8,724
2003 2,762 1,595 1,331 5,789 8,462
2004 2,715 1,540 1,490 5,853 8,525
2005 2,779 1,711 1,478 6,074 8,730
2006 2,776 1,754 1,555 6,198 8,790
2007 2,640 1,683 1,516 5,934 8,429
2008 2,362 1,537 1,398 5,380 7,541
2009 2,103 1,478 1,273 4,913 6,868
2010 1,954 1,324 1,226 4,548 6,375
2011 1,851 1,297 1,218 4,430 6,148
2012 1,955 1,288 1,287 4,567 6,273
2013 1,808 1,219 1,112 4,181 5,825
2014 1,674 1,195 1,185 4,100 5,570
2015 1,798 1,206 1,210 4,269 5,802
2016 1,894 1,221 1,208 4,377 5,919
2017 1,809 1,155 1,245 4,244 5,617
2018 1,605 1,110 1,128 3,880 5,125
2019 1,482 1,042 1,120 3,691 4,877
2020 1,846 1,173 1,289 4,343 5,611
2021 1,815 1,232 1,342 4,441 5,643
In 2021, single-vehicle rollover crashes accounted for 16 percent of occupant deaths in cars, 30 percent of occupant deaths in pickups, and 27 percent of occupant deaths in SUVs.
Deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes as a percent of total occupant deaths, 2021
Drivers All occupants
Single-vehicle rollover All crashes Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Cars Mini 74 14 539 100 95 13 708 100
Small 503 15 3,437 100 633 14 4,503 100
Midsize 787 17 4,571 100 1,003 16 6,084 100
Large 332 19 1,749 100 428 19 2,305 100
Very large 106 15 706 100 135 14 1,000 100
All cars 1,815 16 11,115 100 2,311 16 14,744 100
Pickups Small 263 26 1,016 100 323 27 1,188 100
Large 642 29 2,229 100 780 29 2,723 100
Very large 306 45 686 100 348 42 829 100
All pickups 1,232 31 4,027 100 1,475 30 4,855 100
SUVs Small 285 17 1,668 100 366 16 2,253 100
Midsize 684 31 2,210 100 920 30 3,036 100
Large 266 38 691 100 359 38 947 100
Very large 104 39 267 100 136 37 365 100
All SUVs 1,342 28 4,865 100 1,784 27 6,636 100
All passenger vehicles All 4,441 22 20,261 100 5,643 21 26,585 100
Deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes as a percent of total driver deaths for pickups and SUVs by 2WD/4WD, 2021
2WD 4WD
Single-vehicle rollover All crashes Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Pickups Small 177 26 684 100 86 26 332 100
Large 284 26 1,091 100 358 31 1,138 100
Very large 42 30 138 100 264 48 548 100
All pickups 503 26 1,914 100 708 35 2,018 100
SUVs Small 89 12 730 100 196 21 933 100
Midsize 259 28 940 100 425 33 1,270 100
Large 121 39 313 100 145 38 378 100
Very large 35 34 103 100 69 42 164 100
All SUVs 504 24 2,086 100 835 30 2,745 100
Deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes as a percent of total occupant deaths for pickups and SUVs by 2WD/4WD, 2021
2WD 4WD
Single-vehicle rollover All crashes Single-vehicle rollover All crashes
Number % Number % Number % Number %
Pickups Small 214 27 799 100 109 28 389 100
Large 352 26 1,333 100 428 31 1,390 100
Very large 50 29 173 100 298 45 656 100
All pickups 616 27 2,306 100 835 34 2,435 100
SUVs Small 118 12 1,017 100 248 20 1,230 100
Midsize 339 26 1,284 100 581 33 1,752 100
Large 169 39 433 100 190 37 514 100
Very large 51 36 141 100 85 38 224 100
All SUVs 677 24 2,875 100 1,104 30 3,720 100
Since 1978, driver death rates for single-vehicle rollover crashes have declined across all passenger vehicle types, particularly among SUVs.
Driver deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 1978-2021
Driver deaths in single-vehicle rollover crashes per million registered passenger vehicles 1-3 years old, 1978-2021
Year Car drivers Pickup drivers SUV drivers All passenger vehicles
1978 32 78 141 41
1979 31 90 155 43
1980 37 83 168 47
1981 35 76 137 44
1982 31 65 129 38
1983 29 62 126 35
1984 27 72 69 34
1985 25 61 73 32
1986 24 70 62 32
1987 24 68 67 33
1988 26 70 55 34
1989 24 68 60 33
1990 25 68 60 34
1991 23 66 54 31
1992 20 56 40 27
1993 19 50 51 26
1994 19 42 37 25
1995 20 49 45 27
1996 24 47 55 31
1997 21 44 43 27
1998 21 43 43 28
1999 20 49 47 29
2000 18 46 42 27
2001 18 53 36 27
2002 18 52 36 28
2003 16 47 34 25
2004 15 44 30 23
2005 16 46 24 23
2006 15 44 19 21
2007 14 38 16 19
2008 13 32 12 16
2009 13 28 6 13
2010 11 25 4 11
2011 8 17 4 8
2012 6 11 3 6
2013 5 11 3 5
2014 6 9 3 6
2015 6 7 3 5
2016 5 7 3 5
2017 6 6 3 5
2018 6 5 3 5
2019 4 6 4 4
2020 7 6 4 5
2021 7 7 3 5
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